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           Dr. James Naismith, a Canadian Physical Education Instructor,  invented the game of basketball in 1891. He was born in Almonte, Ontario and educated at McGill University and Presbyterian College in Montreal. While teaching at Springfield College in Springfield, Massachusetts he worked under the direction of American Physical Education Specialist Luther Halsey Gulick to create the sport of indoor basketball.
The game had 13 fundamental rules, which have been modified over the years. Originally, the game used a soccer ball and awarding points by landing the ball in a peach basket. Iron hoops and a hammock-style basket were introduced in 1893. Another decade passed, however, before the innovation of open-ended nets and put an end to retrieving the ball from the basket each time a goal was scored.
Basketball became an Olympic sport in the 1938 Berlin Olympics. It is widely enjoyed sport, with leagues for all ages and abilities. Currently more than 30 million Americans participate in the sport.

Court and Equipment


Basic Rules
  • To win a team must score more points than their opponent
  • One point per successful free throw’ two points per two-point field goal, and three points per three-point field goal.
  • There are five players per team.
  • The ball is advanced by dribbling and passing down court.
  • Games are started with a jump ball in the middle of the court.
  • Turnovers occur when rule violations are made. Some examples of this include, but are not limited to;
  1. Taking more than one step with the ball without passing,    shooting or dribbling. (Traveling)
  2. Stepping out of bounds
  3. Double Dribble
  4. Moving the ball into the back-court once it has been advanced to the front-court (over and back).
  • Free throws are awarded when fouls occur. Some examples of this include, but are not limited to;
a. Charging
b. Blocking
c. Pushing
d. Holding
e. Tripping
f. Hacking or Kneeing
  • The ball must be taken out of bounds by the opposing team after a basket is made.
  • The two main types of defense are Zone and Man-to-Man.
  • The five positions consist of two forwards, two guards, and one center.


  • Dribble with the body low for protection and the head up.
  • Dribble with the hand farthest from the defender and use the body to protect the ball.
  • Spread the fingers and relax the wrist and fingers. Control the ball with the fingers,  pushing it down and forward.
  • Do not bat or slap at the ball, keep a gap between the palm of the hand and the ball.
Chest or Push Pass
  • Hold the ball with both hands keeping elbows close to the body
  • Fingers need to be spread apart with the thumbs pointed inward.
  • Step toward the receiver and whip the ball with a strong wrist snap and push of thumbs and fingers.
  • Make arms follow through in the direction of the pass.
Bounce pass This pass may be executed using on or two hands.
  • For the two-handed bounce pass, hold the ball as you would for a chest pass, but at waist level.
  • Push the ball outward and down with enough force and at the proper angle to bounce the ball to a teammate.
  • The one-handed bounce pass is executed directly from the dribble.
  • The bounce pass should only be used for short passes.
Two-handed Overhead Pass
  • Hold and throw the ball with both hands.
  • Bring the ball well above and slightly behind the head with both hands.
  • Release the ball with a strong wrist snap and extension of the arms.
  • Arms and hands follow through in the direction of the pass.
Baseball Pass
  • Shift the ball in front of the waist to the throwing hand.
  • Turn the opposite side of the body in the direction of the pass, then whip the ball back, as in an infield throw.
  • Step toward the receiver and throw the ball with a full arm motion and wrist snap.
  • Permit the fingers to follow through without a twist so the movement does not cause the ball to curve.
  • The pivot is a skill used to elude an opponent when a  player has the ball.
  • A Forward Pivot is executed by keeping one foot in place on the floor and moving the other forward and across the foot in place.
  • A Reverse Pivot is executed by keeping on foot in place and moving the other backward in a semicircle.
  • Rebounding is used to retrieve a missed shot. It can be performed by offensive and defensive players.
  • Time the jump to coincide with catching the ball at the height of the jump.
  • Firmly grasp the ball with both hands on the sides of the ball.
  • Keep elbow outside the ball to keep a tight grip and prevent opponents from stealing the ball.


  • Focus on the center of the hoop when shooting the ball. The ball should be rolled off the fingertips, causing backspin.
  • The wrist should be cocked with the ball wresting on the fingers and not touching the inside balm of the hand.
  • The elbows should be on line to the target area.
  • The opposite hand should be place don the ball in a position that is comfortable. This hand should not   interfere with the shooting motion.
  • The eyes should be focused on the basket.
  • The shoulders should be squared off to the basket.
Jump Shot
  • Come to a stop from the dribble and execute a controlled jump.
  • At the same bring the ball overhead, with the shooting hand behind the elbow of the shooting arm under the ball and the other hand in front.
  • At the peak of the leap, remove the balance hand and release the ball with extension of the right forearm and good wrist extension.
  • Stop dribbling when the right foot is on the floor, step with the left foot, bring the right knee and jump off the left foot, leap  high into the air, shifting the ball to the shooting hand and raise the shooting hand as high as possible above  and in front of the head.
  • Release the ball off the fingertips’ laying it softly against the backboard.
  • Use both hands to bring the ball up for the shot and do not remove the balancing hand too soon.


Man Defense
  • Guarding a specific player
  • Match ups can be based on speed, size, ability or other factors. 
Zone Defense (types)
  • Guarding a specific area of the court and whoever enters that area.
  • Types of Zone Defenses
    • 2-3
    • 3-2
    • 1-3-3
    • 2-1-2
    • 1-2-2